Adversarial Approach- sees the other party or parties as an enemy to be defeated. It can be compared to the problem-solving approach which views the other party or parties as people who have a common problem that needs to be jointly solved. The adversarial approach typically leads to competitive confrontation strategies, while the problem-solving approach leads to cooperative or integrative strategies for approaching the conflict situation.
Advocacy – the process of taking and working for a particular side‘s interests in a conflict. Lawyers engage in advocacy when they represent a client in a legal proceeding. Disputants can also engage in advocacy themselves–arguing for their own position in negotiation, mediation, or a political debate. Any attempt to persuade another side to agree to your demands is advocacy.
AK-47 – Soviet-manufactured Kalashnikov semi-automatic and fully automatic combat assault rifle, 7.62-mm; characterized by an explosive popping sound.
Amnesty- The granting of a pardon for past offenses–especially political offenses–including, for example, human rights violations and war crimes.
Anarchism- a political theory that a community is best organized by the voluntary cooperation of individuals, rather than by government systems.
Arbitration- A mechanism for resolving conflicts whereby the disputants identify their grievances and demands, fix a procedural process, and willingly submit the decision of outcomes, which are to be final and binding, to an external entity. The contending parties often select the majority of the members of the third party, which normally takes the form of a tribunal.
Armistice- the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. Derived from latin “arma”, meaning weapons and “statium”, meaning stopping.
Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)- regional trade forum for 21 Pacific Rim countries designed with the stated purpose to help enhance economic growth and prosperity in the region. Members include Australia, Brunei, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United States, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong (China), People’s Republic of China, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Chile, Peru, Russia, Vietnam.
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)- formed August 8, 1967 as a geo-political and economic organization of 10 Southeast Asian countries. Stated aims include acceleration of economic growth, social progress, cultural development among members, the protection of the peace and stability of the region, and to provide opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully. Members include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
Authoritarianism- political system that concentrates power into the hands of a leader or small elite that is not constitutionally responsible to the body of the people; the principle of absolute rule. Authoritarian leaders ofter exercise power arbitrarily without regard to existing bodies of law, and usually cannot be replaced by citizens choosing freely among various competitors in election. Freedom to create opposition political parties or alternative political groupings with which to compete for power with the ruling group is either limited or nonexistent.