Capitalism-a social system based on the recognition of inalienable rights in which people are free to produce and trade and thus precondition of an economic system in which all property is privately owned and operated for profit, and which investments, distribution, income, production, and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a market economy. First institutionalized in England between the 16th and 19th centuries, it has now become the dominant system in the Western world since the end of feudalism. Capitalism encourages private investment and business, compared to a government-controlled economy.

Ceasefire- a temporary stoppage of war or armed conflict. An agreed upon suspension of aggressive actions.

Civil Rights- personal rights acquired by an individual by being a citizen or resident, or automatic entitlements to certain freedoms conferred by law or custom that ensure one’s ability to participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination or repression. Certain civil rights (such as the right to equality, freedom, good governance, justice and due process of law) are inalienable, whereas others (such as the right to hold public office) can depend on one’s conduct and can be lost. Can include the right to due process, equal treatment under the law of all people, to seek redress or legal remedy, to participate in civil society, to petition, freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of assembly, the right to vote, freedom from involuntary servitude, the right to equality in public spaces, liberty, property and protection. When interfered upon by another, civil rights give rise to an action for injury. Discrimination occurs when the civil rights of an individual are denied or interfered with because of their membership in a particular group or class. The civil rights movement in North America from the 1950s-80s, a period of civil unrest and popular rebellion, occurred because civil and political rights were not guaranteed to all persons within the state.

Conflict Resources- natural resources whose systematic exploitation and trade in a context of conflict contribute to, benefit from or result in the commission of serious violations of human rights, violations of international humanitarian law or violations amounting to crimes under international law. These include (but are not limited to tin, copper, cobalt, coltan, gold, all the vast mined metals and minerals, and even things like timber. The profits from these resources funds violence. Essentially warlords or brutal armies or corrupt governments overtake mines or resources and begin to sell them on the world market and use this money to fund their violence; buying weapons and power for themselves. The extraction process of the raw materials could have also involved violence, including slave labor, inhumane conditions, massive abuse, intimidation and murder.

Conflict Transformation-This term is being used more and more to refer to a change (usually an improvement) in the nature of a conflict–a de-escalation or a reconciliation between people or groups. Unlike conflict resolution, which denies the long-term nature of conflict, or conflict management, which assumes that people and relationships can be managed as though they were physical objects, the concept of conflict transformation reflects the notion that conflicts go on for long periods of time, changing the nature of the relationships between the people involved, and themselves changing as people’s response to the situation develops over time.

Cultural Violence- any aspect of a culture that can be used to legitimize violence in its direct or structural form. For example, hate speech.

Consumerism-The theory that an increasing consumption of goods is economically beneficial, or an attachment to materialistic values or possessions. This happens when people equate personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption. It is often associated with the writings of Karl Marx and Thorstein Veblen. It is also a movement advocating greater protection of the interests of consumers.


Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) – demilitarized zone. The dividing line between two warring parties that serves as a buffer zone where military activity is not permitted, usually by a peace treaty, armistice or other bilateral or multilateral agreement. Usually forms a de-facto international border. Currently exist between northern Morocco and Spanish-controlled cities of Ceuta and Melilla, between Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus, Aland island (Ahvenanmaa in Finnish), British Gibralter and Spain, Svalbard (Norway), Kuwait and Iraq, North Korea and South Korea, Golan Heights and Syria, and Antarctica. Previously German Rhineland, Israel and Syria, Israel and Egypt, Israel and Jordan, Manchukuo and China, North and South Vietnam, Saudi Arabia and Iraq, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.

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