DDR- stands for Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, a process of decommissioning, down-sizing and reforming former military structures. Prior to the 1980s, DDR was primarily a military enterprise, but after the late 80s, the UN gradually become involved in the support of DDR initiatives for peacekeeping operations and the promotion of democratic oversight of military institutions. Disarmament is the collection, documentation, control and disposal of small arms, ammunition, explosives and light and heavy weapons of combatants and often also of the civilian population. It also includes the development of responsible arms and management programs. It is the symbolic, political and essential element of the demobilization process. The key steps are information collection (or weapons disclosures) and operation planning, weapon collection or retrieval operations, stockpile management, and disposal and destruction of weapons. Demobilization is the formal and controlled discharge of active combatants from armed forces or other armed groups. The first state of demobilization may extend from the processing of individual combatants in temporary centres to the massing of troops in camps designated for this purpose. The second state encompasses the support package provided to the demobilized, generally called reinsertion. Reinsertion is the transitional assistance to help cover the basic needs of the ex-combatants and their families and can last up to one year. Reintegration is the process by which ex-combatants acquire civilian status and gain sustainable employment and income. Reintegration has an open time-frame, primarily taking place in communities at the local level. DDR cannot happen without certain preconditions, including, the signing of a negotiated peace agreement with some legal framework for the DDR, designing credible guarantees on the terms of the agreement, trust in the peace process, willingness of the parties to the conflict to engage in DDR, inclusion of all warring parties, agreement on a policy framework and establishment of an organization to oversee DDR, and a minimum guarantee of security. DDR can provide the mechanism to separate combatants from at least some of their weapons and to begin to break up structures in a way that isn’t seen as surrender. It also allows parties to begin to build trust and confidence among and between former combatants and non-combatants that enables other elements of the peace process to go forward and provides ex-combatants with a much-needed transition period and an opportunity to reintegrate into civilian life. There are many challenges to DDR, many of which are explained clearly here.
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) Typically the dividing line between two warring parties that serves as a buffer zone where military activity is not permitted, usually by a peace treaty, armistice or other bilateral or multilateral agreement. Usually forms a de-facto international border. Currently exist between northern Morocco and Spanish-controlled cities of Ceuta and Melilla, between Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus, Aland island (Ahvenanmaa in Finnish), British Gibralter and Spain, Svalbard (Norway), Kuwait and Iraq, North Korea and South Korea, Golan Heights and Syria, and Antarctica. Previously German Rhineland, Israel and Syria, Israel and Egypt, Israel and Jordan, Manchukuo and China, North and South Vietnam, Saudi Arabia and Iraq, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
Democracy-a governmental theory in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. Usually a democratic country relies on a constitution which guarantees basic personal and political rights, fair and free elections and independent courts of law. Democratic states usually involve a separation of powers between the institutions of the state including the government (executive power), Parliament (legislative power) and courts of law (judicatory power). Equality and freedom are often identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times, as reflected in all citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to power.
Distributive justice-also known as economic justice, is about fairness in what people receive, from goods to attention. Its roots are in social order and it is at the roots of Communism, where equality is a fundamental principle. If people do not think that they are getting their fair share of something, they will seek first to gain what they believe they deserve. They may well also seek other forms of justice.
Direct Violence- the physical manifestations of violence that we commonly associate with violence. For example, the abuses, the attacks, the use of physical force against others.