Human rights- the basic rights and freedoms generally recognized as belonging to all individuals by virtue of the fact that he or she is a human being, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law. They can also include the right of association, belief, free speech, information, religion, movement, nationality, education, livelihood, legal equality and freedom from slavery and torture. The rights are neither created nor can be abrogated by any government and are currently supported by several international conventions and treaties. The rights are not binding on any country, but rather serve as a standard of concern for people and form the basis of many modern national constitutions. They were first defined by philosopher John Locke as absolute moral claims or entitlements to life, liberty and property. Human rights are typically divided into two categories: negative (rights to be free from) and positive (rights to). Human rights are controversial in many ways. Are they political, moral or legal entities (or all three simultaneously)? Can human rights impede on state sovereignty? Who should hold the moral duty to uphold the rights? There is also the problem of cultural relativism, as some people see them as a form of imperialism where powerful countries dictate which rights they consider to be more important against less powerful countries. See also UDHR and civil rights.