I

International Criminal Court (ICC)- the first permanent, treaty based, international criminal court to try perpetrators of the most serious crimes of concern for the international community. The ICC is located in the Hague (Netherlands) and is independent of the United Nations system. The ICC is governed by the Rome Statute to address impunity for major international criminals. Adopted by 120 States  on 17 July 1998 the Rome Statue established the legal basis for the court. It entered into force 1 July 2002 after ratification by 60 countries. The States Parties to the Rome Statute are Burkina Faso (30 November 1998), Senegal (2 February 1999), Ghana (20 December 1999), Mali (16 August 2000), Lesotho (6 September 2000), Botswana (8 September 2000), Sierra Leone (15 September 2000), Gabon (20 September 2000), South Africa (27 November 2000), Nigeria (27 September 2001), Central African Republic (3 October 2001), Benin (22 January 2002), Mauritius (5 March 2002), Niger (11 April 2002), Democratic Republic of the Congo (11 April 2002), Uganda (14 June 2002), Namibia (20 June 2002), Gambia (28 June 2002), United Republic of Tanzania (20 August 2002), Malawi (19 September 2002), Djibouti (5 November 2002), Zambia (13 November 2002),  Guinea (14 July 2003), Congo (3 May 2004), Burundi (21 September 2004), Liberia (22 September 2004), Kenya (15 March 2005), Comoros (18 August 2006), Chad (1 January 2007), Madagascar (14 March 2008), Fiji (29 November 1999), Marshall Islands (7 December 2000), Nauru (12 November 2001), Cyprus (7 March 2002), Cambodia (11 April 2002), Mongolia (11 April 2002), Jordan (11 April 2002), Tajikistan (5 May 2002), Timor-Leste (6 September 2002), Samoa (16 September 2002), Republic of Korea (13 November 2002), Afghanistan (10 February 2003), Japan (17 July 2007), Cook Islands (18 July 2008), Croatia (21 May 2001), Serbia (6 September 2001), Poland (12 November 2001), Hungary (30 November 2001), Slovenia (31 December 2001), Estonia (30 January 2002), The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (6 March 2002), Bosnia and Herzegovina (11 April 2002), Slovakia (11 April 2002), Bulgaria (11 April 2002), Romania (11 April 2002), Latvia (28 June 2002), Albania (31 January 2003), Lithuania (12 May 2003), Georgia (5 September 2003), Montenegro (3 June 2006), Czech Republic (21 July 2009), Trinidad and Tobago (6 April 1999), Belize (5 April 2000), Venezuela (7 June 2000), Costa Rica (30 January 2001), Argentina (8 February 2001), Dominica (12 February 2001), Paraguay (14 May 2001), Antigua and Barbuda (18 June 2001), Peru (10 November 2001), Ecuador (5 February 2002), Panama (21 March 2002), Brazil (20 June 2002), Bolivia (27 June 2002), Uruguay (28 June 2002), Honduras (1 July 2002), Colombia (5 August 2002), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (3 December 2002), Barbados (10 December 2002), Guyana (24 September 2004), Dominican Republic (12 May 2005), Mexico (28 October 2005), Saint Kitts and Nevis (22 August 2006), Surinam (15 July 2008), Chile (29 June 2009), San Marino (13 May 1999), Italy (26 July 1999), Norway (16 February 2000), Iceland (25 May 2000), France (9 June 2000), Belgium (28 June 2000), Canada (7 July 2000), New Zealand (7 September 2000), Luxembourg (8 September 2000), Germany (11 December 2000), Austria (28 December 2000), Finland (29 December 2000), Sweden (28 January 2001), Andorra (30 April 2001), Denmark (21 June 2001), Netherlands (17 July 2001), Liechtenstein (2 October 2001), United Kingdom (4 October 2001), Switzerland (12 October 2001), Portugal (5 February 2002), Ireland (11 April 2002), Greece (15 May 2002), Australia (1 July 2002), Spain (24 October 2002), Malta (29 November 2002).

International Financial Institutions (IFIs)- A generic term including both commercial banks and international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank  (WB) who provide credit internationally that are chartered by more than one country and thus subject to international law. The owners or shareholders are generally national governments, although other international institutions and other organizations occasionally figure as shareholders.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)-

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