Ratification-the act of giving official sanction or approval to a formal document such as a treat or constitution, including a process of adopting an international treaty by the legislature or another nationally binding document by the agreement of multiple sub-national entities. In unionized workplaces, during negotiations, a contract proposal by an employer that may be acceptable to the collective bargaining committee will be brought back for ratification (a vote by the general membership), before the union can either accept or decline such a contract proposal. A ratified proposal means a “yes” vote and will form the basis for the new Collective Bargaining Agreement for that workplace.
Racism- The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others. Usually denotes race-based prejudice, violence, discrimination or oppression.
Restorative justice-The first thing that the betrayed person may seek from the betrayer is some form of restitution, putting things back as they should be. The simplest form of restitution is a straightforward apology. Restoration means putting things back as they were, so it may include some act of contrition to demonstrate one is truly sorry. This may include action and even extra payment to the offended party. Restorative justice is also known as corrective justice.
Retributive justice- Restoration may well not be enough for the betrayed person and they may seek revenge of some sort, whereby they can feel the satisfaction of seeing the other person suffer in the way that they have suffered.Revenge can be many times more severe than reparation as the hurt party seeks to make the other person suffer in return.